External communication c. Horizontal communication d. Upward communication View Answer / Hide Answer The subordinates use upward communication to convey their problems and performances to their superiors. Being a network of networks, grapevine communication conglomerates gossip, rumors, and official information. Employee handbook, organization manual, house journal, annual reports, notices memos and committee meetings are the main media of downward communication. 7. Then a diagram of these patterns, known as a sociogram, is drawn showing the pathways used for communication. It also tends to distort people from core functioning by opening up avenues for satisfying social needs. It is often both inadequate and inaccurate. Such communication does not have any layout and need not be carried out within the organisational premises. Increases Organisational Efficiency – Formal channels of communication ensure smooth flow of information through organisational hierarchy. It means communication between persons who are neither in the same department nor on the same level of organizational structure. It flows from individuals in higher levels of the organisation to those at lower levels. What is Grapevine Communication? A manager cannot exercise effective control without do a complete such information and he cannot do a complete job of managing without controlling. For example, the Cost and Works Account who is interested in conducting a distribution cost analysis may ask a report directly from the sales representatives. Liaisons have been referred to as “the ‘cement’ that holds the structural ‘bricks’ of an organisation together; when the liaisons are removed, a system tends to fall apart into isolated cliques.”. It is, therefore the injudicious and untrue part of the grapevine. A lot of information flows horizontally in an organization. This can be done in two ways. Oral Communication – Informal communication more often uses oral mode and seldom written mode is used. Providing feedback on employees performance. (iv) Supplement – At times, informal communication may supplement the formal channel. Upward communication has certain limitations also. They are governed by pre-determined rules and regulations leaving no scope for exercising their creativity or innovation. As a consequence of the review, a questionnaire was developed to measure managers' perceptions of and ability to monitor and/or control the grapevine. (iv) It implies delay tactics and redtapism process in the organisation. Formal communication may also take place between an enterprise and the external environment. To implement the plan, managers must convey this information to everyone in the organization. The channels of communication are: 1. It is normally said that informal information spreads as fast as fire in the forest. So, grapevine is an informal, unofficial and personal communication channel or system that takes place within the organization as a result of rumor and gossip. Informal communication offers the following benefits: (i) It helps in developing better human relations in the organization. Such feedback has become all the more necessary due to growing tendency towards delegation and decentralization. Informal communication, generally associated with interpersonal, horizontal communication, was primarily seen as a potential hindrance to effective organizational performance. Privacy Policy3. Share Your PPT File, Channels of Communication: Formal and Informal Communication, Channels of Communication – Formal and Informal Communication. It may be disadvantageous if downward communication is used as a tool to exercise authority. Organisations, being formal structures, follows written mode of communication such as – letters, memos, notices, circulars, handbooks and e-mails. Top management must depend on subordinates for vital information received from suggestion systems, open-door discussions, attitude surveys, and participative decision meetings. Grapevine communication is associated with ............................. communication, 34. But it may violate the principle of unity of command. Although they may not always be successful in convincing the general public that their actions are public- minded, they must try to win and maintain the support of their employees. This type of communication is also known as – ‘Grapevine’ communication. (ii) It helps to develop better understanding between subordinates and his immediate superior. Such networks are also described as “grapevine communication.” They may come into being through the rumor mill, social networking, graffiti, spoof newsletters, and spontaneous water-cooler conversations. Deliberate, planned and sustained efforts to establish and maintain mutual understanding between an organization and these agencies (public) is known as public relations. Here in informal organization communication is done through the grapevine. The sociogram also singles out a liaison person, who is at the centre of information flow. People intermingling very frequently comes to know about each other’s positives such as – strengths and weaknesses emotional levels, fears, beliefs, apprehensions, etc. Both the systems exist in all organisations. But distortion may arise in reports due to fear of displeasing the boss, due to desire to make a favourable impression, etc. A rumour can be defined as an unverified belief that is in general circulation inside the organisation (an internal rumour) or in the organisation’s external environment (an external rumour). 3. Feedbacks in formal structure are usually manipulated and fabricated, thus non-reliable. Organizational distance, screening at various points and narrow route are the main bottlenecks in the flow of formal communication. It is a complex web of oral information flow linking all the members of the … There is a saying – “nothing comes like a free lunch.” That is one has to pay for everything. (i) Misinforming and Misleading – It very often carries half-truths, rumours and distorted information with an alarming rate of speed. People, being social creatures, have a desire to talk informally with each other. Sometimes, rumour arises due to pure maliciousness on the part of employees. Both can complement and supplement each other. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! The use of the term grapevine is originated during the Civil War, when telegraph lines were strung loosely between trees and soldiers said the wires resembled a grapevine. The following important advantages of formal communication: (i) It helps to maintain the line of authority of executive. Grapevine communication is the informal communication network within an organization. Lack of Cordiality – Formal communication is basically a communication between positions and not people holding those positions. The channels can be both informal and formal. In large organisations, the process of communicating with employees is undertaken by a staff of communication experts whose usual function is to produce a publication aimed at three purposes – (i) to explain the organisation’s plans and programmes as they are implemented; (ii) to answer complaints and criticisms; and (iii) to defend the status quo and those who are responsible for it. This is quite similar to the vine of grapes. Spontaneous – Informal communication may take place at any time, between any members of organisation instantaneously. Such network might be appropriate for simple operations requiring little intuition among the members of group. Formal communication is compared to arteries of a living being, whereas, grapevine or informal communication are like veins. It should not repeat the rumour. Downward communication is used by the managers for the following purposes: ii. An executive can know the outcome of his decisions and instructions from reliable information from the employees. Communication can Grapevine Communication Essay given. Informal Communication. Downward Communication 2. In it, members of a group or unit are asked about the other members with whom they communicate. The managers relate to and learn from the environment through information received and transmitted. Rumour may also be used by employees to put pressure upon management. Upward communication also enables management to know the level of actual execution vis-a-vis plans as communicated by them. 2. One way of overcoming these problems is to provide multiple channels linking one position with various other positions. It is difficult to erase a rumour from the minds of the people. Thus, the purpose of formal communication is to carry directives and information from superiors to subordinates, transfer reports, records, suggestions, demands, etc., from subordinates to superiors and transfer of reports, circulars, notes, etc., from one colleague to another. ii. The Grapevine 2. These reports may be used to measure performance, to control costs, to check conformance with policies and procedures, etc. It is kind of horizontal communication, which takes place within a group, between persons of equal status. Unlike internal communication, external communication flows outward. As a result, people keep on extending such talks at the cost of their formal tasks. (i) There are many occasions when the grapevine does not carry complete information. Research suggests – (i) organisations have several grapevine systems, (ii) information travelling in a grapevine does not follow an orderly path, and (iii) organisationally related grapevine information is about 75 per cent accurate. (vi) Grapevine functions partly in a predictable manner which offers managers a chance to influence it. The merits of informal communication are as under: i. It may be a potential problem, a creative idea, a feeling of personal satisfaction. 40. It may go to any extent. It is difficult to achieve, especially in larger organisations. ii. These documents are stored within the organisation and thus are free from any personal intervention. It is free from any chaos and is rigid enough not to allow any deviations or distortions. Employees typically receive such tremendous amounts of downward communication that they selectively decide which messages to fully receive, which to partially receive, and which to disregard. Messages are often sent and accurately received, and feedback is frequently obtained. Developed by, Business Communication Objective Questions and Answer. In this form of communication, information converges a long way by passing from one person to another person leaving no indication from which point it started. There is no fixed number of communicators in informal communication. Formal communications are generally in writing. Its intended messages are those which present the organisation’s side of issues. Due to informal linkages, people may disclose some vital information at the wrong time which may create confusions and conflicts or in front of wrong people who may misuse such information. However, by better understanding the grapevine, we can successfully leverage it as part of our overall communication strategy. v. It gives opportunity to employees to form social group and communicate with each other. Sometimes managers also use informal communication when they find it difficult to collect information from the workers. (ii) Dynamic and Quick – Informal communication is dynamic and reacts quickly. 2. (iv) It helps to develop good relations between leaders and his subordinates. Moreover, by knowing who can communicate to whom, people are also at ease and comfort in terms of communicational guidelines. Informal communication suffers from the following drawbacks: (i) It is not authentic and message may get distorted. (1) Single Standard: Employees in turn use this information for performing their jobs as per the expectations of their superiors. Communication flows are the primary considerations in organisational design. Some differences in interpersonal communication styles may also be due to gender. 3. One of the most commonly used media of upward communication is periodic performance reports from subordinates. Such communication is helpful in coordinating the activities of different departments or divisions of the enterprise. Communication means ............................. information, feeling and thoughts, with others, 32. Along the organisational hierarchy, it may flow in the following three directions: Downward communication may be defined as a flow of communication from a higher level in an organisation to the lower level. Clarity in Communication – Formal communication derives its origin from organisational structure. Informal channels have their sanction in the social groups that develop within the organisation and messages are communicated freely with each other, it is free from all formally delegated lines of authority. Formal channels are the paths of communication which are institutionally determined and which are associated with status or position of the sender and the receiver. With such discussions, people are satiated and in turn, they work contentedly. It is purely structure less, directionless and boundless. It generally takes place when members cannot communicate effectively through other channels. People are active on the grapevine when their own interests and interests of their friends/ colleagues are involved, (v) It operates at a fast speed because it functions through word of mouth or observation. Such communication may help to save time and to speed up action. It may take place between any employees of an organisation irrespective of his position in scalar chain of command. The communication network represents the pattern of contacts among the members of an organisation. Informal communication or grapevine has the following characteristics: (i) It arises from social interactions among people, (ii) It is a natural and normal activity due to desire of people to talk to one another, (iii) It generally operates like a cluster chain as every person tells in turn many other persons, (iv) Only a few persons are active communicators in it. Most common forms of downward communication are job instructions, official memos, policy statements, procedures, posters, manuals, and company publications. The patterns of informal communications can be graphically represented by constructing sociograms. Filled up forms as required by the organisation. When managers attempt to communicate with other people the problems that can arise can be traced to perceptual and interpersonal style differences. Information communication transcends the barriers and boundaries of the formal channels. Due to this reason, it is also known as – “grapevine”. It is also known as top-down communication. The following are the limitations of the formal communication: (i) The every happening in the organisation cannot be foreseen. Managers are better able to understand behaviour and core capabilities of their employees and may make use of it for better performance. As per an analysis, around 80% of the rumors in grapevine communication are … Better Monitoring and Control – As formal communication follows a scalar chain of command to transfer information, there is absolute clarity as to what information has been sent by whom and to whom. 4. Managers must provide for communication in three distinct directions – downward, upward, and horizontal. Effective upward communication means getting messages from employees to management. External Communication. Rumours may exist as an outcome of malicious intention or just due to lack of knowledge. Everyone is free to communicate with anyone and everyone in the organisation. 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